Tungsten Disulfide for Laser Saturable Absorbers Application

Tungsten disulfide saturable absorbers for 67 fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers image

The researchers found that tungsten disulfide (WS2) can be converted into a direct semiconductor with a band gap of 2.1 eV by controlling the chemical composition and number of layers due to the quantum confinement effect. In addition, WS2 has better saturable absorption properties than graphene and carbon nanotubes in the near- and mid-infrared bands. Due to these excellent properties, it is increasingly being used in laser saturable absorbers (SAs).

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Tungsten Disulfide for Electrocatalysis Application

XPS spectrum of the S 2p and W 4f signals for the pristine image

Tungsten disulfide (WS2) is promising electrocatalysis with a layered structure with adjustable electrical properties and exposed edges that can act as the active center. It is mainly used as an electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reactions. The surface of WS2 is inert; however, the catalytic activity of WS2 occurs at the lamellar edges, which determines the overall catalytic performance. In order to improve the catalytic effect of WS2, the electrolyte must be in complete contact with the WS2 layer.

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WS2 Films for Catalysis Application

Catalytic decomposition of different samples under ultraviolet light irradiation image

Due to its unique band gap properties, inherent vacancy defects, and low electrical conductivity, WS2 films can be used for catalysis. Catalysis including photocatalysis and electrocatalysis is essential in our daily life, and they have been widely used for environmental protection and clean energy generation.

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Stripping Method for WS2 Preparation

WS2 film preparation by mechanical stripping and liquid-phase stripping and lithium-ion intercalation image

Bulk tungsten disulfide (WS2) can be stripped by physical and chemical methods, which are classified as mechanical and stripping method, and lithium-ion intercalation method. In recent years, in order to obtain large-area, high-quality monolayer tungsten disulfide films, researchers have tried to grow monolayer tungsten disulfide films on ingot substrates and then exfoliate them by atomic or molecular intercalation methods.

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Chemical Methods for WS2 Film Preparation

Schematic of the processes for producing WS2 thin films by one-step CVD and hydrothermal method image

Two common methods for preparing tungsten disulfide (WS2) films by chemical methods are chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and hydrothermal growth of single-crystal tungsten disulfide from aqueous solutions under high temperature and pressure conditions. CVD is the most common method used to prepare tungsten disulfide. The CVD method involves a reaction process in which a gaseous precursor reacts chemically on a solid surface to produce a solid deposit.

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Properties of Tungsten Disulfide

Schematics of the deposition chambers for WS2-CF coating prepared by magnetron sputtering image

Owing to unique physical and chemical properties, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) attract research interest. Among the family of TMDs, tungsten disulfide (WS2) has a unique band structure due to its semiconductor properties; i.e., its broadband spectral response characteristics, ultra-fast bleaching recovery time, and excellent saturable light absorption.

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Atomic Structure of Tungsten Disulfide

tungsten disulphide structure image

The atomic structure of tungsten disulfide (WS2) consists of a stack of three layers formed by a transition metal layer (W atom) sandwiched between two S-atom layers, each with a hexagonal lattice structure. In the three-layer stack, W and S atoms are bonded together by strong ion-covalent bonds. WS2 formed by these three layers is held together by weak van der Waals interactions, which allow mechanical exfoliation of the WS2 layer. In the bulk phase, polymorphism is a unique feature of TMDs.

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The 3 Most Common Tungsten Alloys—Its Properties & Applications

pure tungsten picture

Alloys are metals made by combining two or more metallic elements, primarily to provide greater strength or corrosion resistance. The tungsten alloy family has many industrial applications due to its strength. Tungsten offers a unique contribution because it imparts exceptional strength, corrosion resistance and other useful properties to base metals. In addition to being an excellent alloying element, tungsten can also serve as the basis for its own alloys, and this article will focus on the basic categories of these tungsten alloys. Below are some details on the 3 most common tungsten alloys widely used in industry. Their properties and applications will also be introduced.

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Challenges of Current Applications on WS2 Nanomaterials

Tungsten disulfide nanoparticles image

The current applications on WS2 nanomaterials still face challenges and should be investigated in depth in the following aspects. Firstly, the study mechanism of HER needs to be deepened and clarified in terms of the fundamental properties of WS2. Advanced characterization methods, such as in situ techniques, can be combined to analyze the structural changes of the material during the catalytic process and reveal the catalytic process of WS2-based nanomaterials, especially electrocatalysis.

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Tungsten Disulfide for Electrode Materials of Supercapacitor

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy spectra and diffusivity of lithium ions image

Recently, researchers demonstrated a specific capacitance of 398.5 F.g-1 for sheet tungsten disulfide anode materials. However, the performance of these materials remains unsatisfactory. Encouragingly, Nagaraju et al. synthesized WS2 nanoparticles used as supercapacitor electrode materials, which provided a high capacitance value of 1439.5 F.g-1 at a current density of 5 mA.cm-2 and maintained excellent cycling stability of 77.4% after 3000 cycles. This result suggests that WS2 can be considered a promising candidate for supercapacitor electrode materials.

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