Industrial Purple Nano-Needle Tungsten Oxide Preparation Method

Nanoscale tungsten powder (granularity≦100 nm) and ultrafine tungsten powder (100 nm≦granularity≦500 nm) are major raw materials used for preparing nanoscale tungsten carbide powder (granularity≦100 nm), ultrafine tungsten carbide powder (100 nm≦granularity≦500 nm) and ultrafine grain cemented alloy (100 nm≦granularity≦500 nm), and the nanoscale and ultrafine tungsten carbide powders and ultrafine grain cemented alloy are products of a relatively high add-on value in the present international market.

Preparation method of nano-needle purple tungsten oxide, characterized in that ammonium paratungstate 5(NH4)2O.12WO3.5H2O is used as a raw material, and the method comprises the steps of:

1.Pushing the ammonium paratungstate 5(NH4)2O.12WO3.5H2O through a feed inlet of a feeding device into a heated furnace pipe, and moving the ammonium paratungstate 5(NH4)2O.12WO3.5H2O gradually from a low temperature area to a high temperature area while the inclined furnace pipe is being rotated;

2.Heating and decomposing the ammonium paratungstate 5(NH4)2O.12WO3.5H2O into tungsten trioxide WO3, ammonia gas NH3 and water vapor H2O;

3.Thermally decomposing the ammonia gas NH3 in the furnace pipe to produce reducing hydrogen gas H2

4.Moving the raw material to the high temperature area while the inclined furnace pipe is rotating, such that when the temperature of the raw material continues rising, the tungsten trioxide WO3 is reduced gradually by the hydrogen gas H2 to produce purple tungsten oxide WO2.72.


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Tungsten Oxide Films Forming Method

Tungsten is among the transition metals which form electrochromic metal oxide films. Electrochromic materials have variable light transmittance in response to an applied electrochemical potential. Such metal oxide films are used in electrochromic display devices wherein the film changes color when subjected to an electrical potential. A tungsten oxide film is typically preferred for this application due to its highly visible color change.

Tungsten oxide films are of interest for use as a coating for glass, to produce windows with controllable light transmission. For example, the automobile industry might use such coated windows to lower the amount of sunlight-generated heat in the passenger compartment of a car. The tungsten oxide, WO3, film is normally a faint yellow, and when the film reacts with protons from an electrolyte it changes color. The corresponding electrochemical reaction is:

WO3 +xM+ +xe- ⃡Mx WO3

where M =H, Li, K or Na (faint yellow to colorless) (blue, tungsten bronze).

This electrochromic reaction is sometimes characterized as a change from a bleached, white or colorless state to a colored state. The bleached state has relatively high transmittance and the colored state, relatively low transmittance.

Tungsten oxide, WO3, has been reported to possess ferroelectric properties. Ferroelectric materials have potential for use in nonvolatile memory devices, that is, devices in which data is retained even when power is cut off. In addition, tungsten oxide may potentially be used for infrared temperature sensors.

Several methods are used to form tungsten oxide films. The methods include sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, in which sub-atmospheric pressure must be maintained. In these methods, large, complex and expensive equipment is needed, and the methods involve significant energy consumption and relatively high operating costs. The films produced by current methods are tungsten oxide films of WO3, without suboxides, and which are colorless or faint yellow, single color films.

This invention relates to forming a tungsten oxide film on a substrate by applying an alkyl amine tungstate compound thereon and pyrolyzing at least a portion of the alkyl amine tungstate compound to form the tungsten oxide film. More particularly this invention relates to such method utilizing a solution containing the alkyl amine tungstate compound to uniformly apply the compound onto the substrate, drying the solution to form a deposit and heating the deposit for a time and at a temperature sufficient to achieve a desired composition of the tungsten oxide film.

In addition, the method includes forming a color gradient. That is, regions of the film having different colors are made by varying the time and temperature of heating for respective regions of the film. The regions are faint yellow to deep brown, and electrochromic. The method also results in the formation of suboxides of tungsten oxide (WO3) at selected times and temperatures.


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Tungsten Oxide Photocatalyst Producing Method

Titanium oxide is a material which is widely known as a photocatalyst, but almost nonfunctional in a place without ultraviolet rays. Therefore, extensive research has been conducted on a tungsten oxide photocatalyst which can use visible light.

A photocatalyst using tungsten oxide particles singly generates holes in a valence band and electrons in a conductive band, respectively, by light excitation under irradiation of visible lights. However, since the conductive band has an energy level lower than a redox potential, the oxygen cannot be reduced with the electrons excited in the conductive band and the generation of active oxygen species is not sufficient. As a result, the photocatalyst does not show photocatalyst activity in an environment under visible light irradiation.

A tungsten oxide photocatalyst having titanium oxide and copper ion supported thereon, which is obtained by dissolving urea in a solution in which copper-ion supporting tungsten oxide particles are uniformly dispersed in a titanium oxide sol, thermally decomposing the urea to thereby allow the titanium oxide to precipitate on the surface of copper ion-supporting tungsten oxide and to be supported thereon, wherein the change of diffuse reflectivity (at wavelength of 700 nm) is less than 3% after the irradiation of ultraviolet at center wavelength of 365 nm in air with irradiance of 1 mW/cm2 for 72 hours.
 

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Tungsten Film Properties Controlling Method

The deposition of tungsten films using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques is an integral part of many semiconductor fabrication processes. Tungsten films may be used as low resistivity electrical connections in the form of horizontal interconnects, vias between adjacent metal layers, and contacts between a first metal layer and the devices on the silicon substrate. In a conventional tungsten deposition process, the wafer is heated to the process temperature in a vacuum chamber, and then a very thin portion of tungsten film, which serves as a seed or nucleation layer, is deposited. Thereafter, the remainder of the tungsten film (the bulk layer) is deposited on the nucleation layer. Conventionally, the tungsten bulk layer is formed by the reduction of tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) with hydrogen (H2) on the growing tungsten layer.

In certain embodiments, a method includes providing a substrate to a chamber. The substrate includes a field region and a feature recessed from the field region, and the feature includes sidewalls and a bottom. A tungsten nucleation layer is deposited on the sidewalls and the bottom of the feature. The feature is filled with tungsten via a first chemical vapor deposition process using a tungsten precursor. During the first chemical vapor deposition process, the substrate temperature is maintained at about 330 to 450° C. and the partial pressure of the tungsten precursor in the chamber is less than about 1 Torr.


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Using Waste Material Recover Tungsten By Ammonium Leaching

Tungsten-soft scrap is a waste that accrues by the production of hard metal tools. The land filling of this valuable material causes serious ecological and economic problems. Thus, it is required to recover tungsten with appropriate techniques, for instance by leaching.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, a method of recycling tungsten within a waste material is provided. The method comprises (a particularly continuous or uninterrupted, i.e. without any intermediate method step between) roasting the waste material in an oxidizing atmosphere for at least partially converting tungsten compounds of the waste material (such as metallic tungsten and/or tungsten carbide and/or other compounds comprising tungsten) into tungsten oxide, and, directly after the roasting (particularly without any intermediate method step between), leaching the roasted waste material for separating tungsten components from remaining components. The tungsten components are leached (this may or may not be the before mentioned leaching process) in an alkaline ammonia solution so that the tungsten oxide is selectively dissolved. The method further comprises separating remaining solid components of the leached roasted waste material from the dissolved tungsten oxide.

According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, a process for at least partially recycling tungsten from impurified tungsten scrap is provided. A gist of such a process is the combination of a continuous oxidative roasting procedure directly followed by a selective leaching of the resulting metal oxides to separate different metal components by a solid/liquid separation. Separation of specific tungsten components from other components (such as components comprising other metals and/or other tungsten components) may be performed by producing an ammonia solution. In such an ammonia solution, the tungsten components can be brought in the liquid phase, whereas other components are in a solid phase. By applying only one (or a single-stage) roasting procedure at moderate temperatures it is possible to significantly accelerate the recycling process as compared to conventional approaches which apply complicated multiple-step roasting procedures interrupted by reduction processes.


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Tungsten Steel Push Rod


The utility model discloses a tungsten steel push rod. The tungsten steel push rod comprises a cylindrical push rod body, wherein the cylindrical push rod body comprises a first push rod part, a second push rod part and a third push rod part, which are coaxially arranged from left to right; the periphery of the first push rod part is annularly provided with a groove around the cylindrical push rod body, four first planes are uniformly distributed at the periphery of the second push rod part annularly, four second planes are uniformly distributed into a circle at the periphery of the third push rod part, a first threaded hole is formed at the center of one side (far away from the second push rod part) of the third push rod part, the first threaded hole extends into the first push rod part from the third push rod part and does not penetrate through the first push rod part, a second threaded hole is formed in one second cambered surface and perpendicular to the axis direction of the push rod body, and the second threaded hole extends into the first threaded hole.

The tungsten steel push rod has high dimensional accuracy, and the dimensional precision of the tungsten steel push rod is still in a required precision range after the tungsten steel push rod is used for multiple times.

A tungsten steel push rod, characterized in that the pusher comprises a cylindrical body, said body including a pusher disposed coaxially from the left to the right of the first portion of the push rod, the push rod and push the second portion The third part of the rod, the outer diameter of the push rod is equal to the outer diameter of the first portion of the third portion of the push rod, the push rod is greater than the outer diameter of the first portion of the outer diameter of the second portion of the pusher; said push The first portion of the outer lever body around the axis of the push rod the annular groove is provided; second portion of said peripheral annular pusher uniform four first plane, the angle between adjacent two of said first plane 90 °, between the two first curved surface disposed adjacent to the first plane, the radius of the first curved surface is equal to the radius of the second portion of the pusher; third portion of said peripheral annular pusher uniform four a second plane, the angle between two of said second plane o is 90 °, the second plane disposed between adjacent two of the second arc, the radius of the arc is equal to the second section of the push rod a portion of the radius; third portion away from the center of the push rod side of the second portion of the pusher of the first threaded hole is provided, extending from said first threaded bore of said push rod to the push rod of the first part of the third portion inside, but does not penetrate the first portion of the push rod, wherein the axial direction in a direction perpendicular to said second plane of said body is provided with a second push rod threaded hole, the second screw extending through said first aperture threaded hole.


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Treatment Technology for Improving Coating Layer Bonding Strength of Tungsten Alloy

The invention relates to a treatment technology for improving the coating layer bonding strength of a tungsten alloy, and mainly solves the problem of reduction of corrosion resistance caused by low bonding strength and easiness in coating layer falling in the tungsten alloy coating layer technology in the prior art.

An electroplating layer is formed by secondary electroplating. The treatment technology comprises the following steps of: performing pretreatment on the tungsten alloy, performing treatment by hydrofluoric acid, electroplating a layer of nickel with the thickness of about 1 micrometer, cleaning and drying, performing high-temperature heating in a sintering furnace full of protective gas, preserving heat for a period of time, cooling, then performing activation pretreatment, electroplating nickel or other metal again outside the electroplating layer until the required total thickness is achieved, then cleaning and drying. By using a twice electroplating mode, metal molecules of a preplated layer and the tungsten alloy can be quickly dispersed by high-temperature heating, so that the bonding strength between the electroplating layer and the tungsten alloy is improved; the secondary electroplating can enable the bonding strength between the electroplating layer and the tungsten alloy to be improved; and the brightness attractiveness and the corrosion resistance of the electroplating layer are kept.


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Miniature Tungsten Steel Milling Cutter

The utility model relates to a miniature tungsten steel milling cutter. The milling cutter comprises a circular milling cutter body (1), a connection hole (2) connected to a cutter shaft is formed in the center of the milling cutter body (1), the outer edge surface of the milling cutter body (1) is provided with 8 cutter bits (3) in a protruding manner, the diameter of the connection hole (2) is 3mm, the total diameter of the milling cutter body (1) and the cutter bits (3) is 6.8mm, and the milling cutter body (1) and each cutter bit (3) are 1mm thick respectively, are made of tungsten steel and are respectively coated with a titanium coating, a nitridation layer, a super coating, a titanium carbonitriding layer or a super A coating. The miniature tungsten steel milling cutter can be used for cutting miniature PCBs (printed circuit boards) well.

A miniature tungsten steel cutter, wherein: said cutter comprising a milling cutter body in a circle (1), the center of the cutter body (I) there is connected with the opening of the arbor a connection hole (2), the outer edge surface of said cutter body (I) is provided with a plurality of projecting tip (3); and a connection hole (2) has a diameter of 3mm, the milling cutter body (I) plus diameter of the head (3) is 6.8mm, the thickness of the blade body system (I) and the head (3) are 1mm.


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Rapid Sintering Detecting Method for Service Performance of Tungsten Carbide Powder

The invention relates to a rapid sintering detecting method for the service performance of tungsten carbide powder.

The method is characterized by comprising the following steps: preparing materials, wet milling, doping paraffin, preparing sample and detecting. The invention has the following advantages: firstly, the method is rapid, accurate, objective, universal and complete; secondly, the change tendency of the tungsten carbide is reflected in the production process of hard alloy so as to detect the service performance of the tungsten carbide; thirdly, complete degree of carbonization and index of crystallization integrity are detected to reflect the change tendency and the service performance of the tungsten carbide in the production process of hard alloy.


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A Sintering Process High Density Tungsten Nickel-iron Alloy Preparation

The present invention discloses a method for preparing high density tungsten nickel-iron sintering process includes the following steps: 1) preparation: W content of tungsten powder> 99.95%; Ni content of nickel powder> 99.8%; Fe content iron of> 99.5% ; 2) Separator: Using a 200 mesh sieve, filtering the raw material powder; 3) with flour; 4) Die: The above mixed alloy powder filled in molded rubber bag; 5) cold isostatic pressing ; 6) Sintering: two-step sintering in hydrogen IF induction furnace sinter pass protection, divided into pre-sintered, solid-phase sintering, liquid phase sintering stages. Using the production process of the present invention, the processing of high-density tungsten nickel alloy has the following properties: tungsten nickel-iron alloy does not deform, even internal chemical composition and microstructure, relative density ≥99%; no internal cracks, bubbles and large crystals, machining excellent performance.


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